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Use and maintenance: cotton fertilizing and mulching seeder
Use and maintenance: cotton fertilizing and mulching seeder
Cotton is an important economic crop, is one of the important raw materials of textile industry and chemical industry, the market demand is huge. How to increase cotton output to meet the market demand? In addition to the selection of good varieties, the use of mechanization and mulching technology is an important means to increase production. Cotton fertilizer and film planter, with multiple functions, can scrape, furrow, fertilize, sow, cover soil, suppress, spray medicine and spread film at one time, improving working efficiency and sowing quality. The cotton planter is attached to a small four-wheel tractor between 8.8-13kw and operates on the land after the plowing.
I. structure and principle
Cotton fertilizer and film seeding machine is composed of compost mechanism, frame, ground wheel chain drive mechanism, compost mechanism, seed mechanism, spraying device, formwork mechanism, pressure membrane mechanism and earth plate. The soil aggregation mechanism is composed of a scraper soil collector and an elevator, which is located in the front of the machine to ensure the surface level. Turn the hand wheel of the elevator forward and backward to adjust the depth of soil. Different surface conditions need to adjust the depth of different soil moisture content. The front and back rotating screw can adjust the soil Angle and sowing depth of the soil heaters. Ground wheel drive system consists of ground wheel, ground wheel shaft, sprocket, chain and other components. When the tractor drives the ground wheel forward, the double sprocket on the ground wheel shaft drives the work of the manure mechanism and seed mechanism through the chain. The discharging mechanism is mainly composed of a fertilizer groove opener, a fertilizer box, a fertilizer discharge wheel, a fertilizer discharge device, a fertilizer discharge shaft, and an adjusting hand wheel. The discharging wheel is fixed on the composting shaft. The ground wheel shaft drives the composting shaft and the composting device to rotate through the chain, and the fertilizer enters the trench opened by the trencher through the composting pipe. Turn the green hand wheel to adjust the position of the discharge wheel in the discharge box. Add and subtract as needed. Fertilizer discharge is usually set at about 50 kg per mu. The seed - discharging mechanism is mainly composed of seed - opener, seed box, seed - discharging device, soil - covering device and compactor.
Due to different seeds used, seed metering device is divided into light seed metering device and wool seed metering device. The seed metering device is composed of seed metering disc, hair brush and seed metering disc set. Several seeding holes were distributed evenly around the seeding disc. Remove the platter, we can see a breeding hole. The brush can be adjusted to control the number of seeds entering the pit. When the seed metering device works, the driving wheel drives the seed metering disk to rotate. In rotation, cotton seed is filled into the seed row hole, and the wool brush will clean out too many seeds, so that only 2 to 3 seeds are kept in each hole. When the seeding point is transferred to the top of the seeding point, the seeds from the seeding point fall into the seed groove opened by the trencher and complete the seeding. The quantity of seed discharging device is about 1 kg per mu. Woollen seed metering device is composed of seed platter, seed roller, seed platter fixing sleeve and seed metering adjusting TAB. There is a square planter opening on the planter. The drive wheel turns the seed - pulling wheel. The wool seeds are driven into the seed discharge port by the seed wheel, and fall into the seed groove opened by the cutter, to complete the seed discharge. The amount of seed discharging can be adjusted to about 4kg per mu. Seeds are poured into the trench of the ditchmaker, and the overburden is used to bury fertilizer and seeds respectively. The compactor compacts the soil and completes the sowing operation. The spray device sprays the liquid through the spray head and onto the ground. After buying the cotton seed planter, we need to check each fastener.
1. Mounting adjustment
After checking the fasteners, the planter can be connected to the tractor. When connecting, first step back the tractor, aim at the middle part of the cotton fertilizer and film planter suspension, and connect with the planter according to the three-point connection mode. Lock it with a locking pin. Tighten the screws and adjust the left and right lower pull bar to keep the machine parallel to the ground to ensure the same sowing depth.
2. Preparation for seeding
Adjust the furrow depth of planter according to the requirement of agronomy. Depth should be 30~50 mm. It is easy to pile soil in the middle of the trencher and reduce the quality of work. Shallow sowing makes it easy to leak seeds. The fertilizer should be granular. Note that the clotted fertilizer must be crushed. The added seeds should be cleaned to prevent blockage and lack of seedlings. Prepare herbicides according to local weed conditions and agricultural technical requirements. Pour the herbicide into the medicine bucket. Add water as required in the herbicide instructions.
The depth of furrow is achieved by adjusting the position of the plow column up and down. When adjusting, loosen the set screw of the plow column, move the plow column up and down, and lock the screw after the depth is appropriate. According to agronomic requirements, the trench depth is generally around 35mm. The mulch is installed on the mulch axis. First, one side of the mulch is connected to the formwork bracket, and then the other side is connected to the other side. After the film is pressed, tighten it with a screw. Be careful not to clamp the film axis too tightly, otherwise easy to make the shaft rotation difficult, the film tension is too large, pull bad film, will affect the quality of the film. Fix the replacement screw after adjustment. Then press the pressure membrane wheel on the film. Adjust the overburden wheel and prepare for operation.
The soil depth of the overburden plate is generally about 15mm. In operation, the tension strength of the tension spring can be adjusted according to the different soil quality and operating speed to achieve better results. In the process, the furrow disc will make two furrows on both sides of the seeding ridge, and the film will be covered on the seeding ridge. The pressure film wheel will expand and press the film, and the pressure film wheel will press a small amount of soil on top of the film, and the film cover will press the soil on the edge of the film to prevent it from being blown away by the wind. After the preparation work is completed, the pilot is 10-20 meters. It should be noted that this kind of planter is used for planting and fertilizing on the same ridge. In order to prevent fertilizer burning, the amount of fertilizer applied should be reduced according to local conditions. Observe the working status of the planter and see if it meets the agricultural requirements. After meeting agronomic requirement, begin to sow formally again.
II. Use of seeder
Cotton fertilizer and film seeder into the ground after a slow start. After that, use the first gear and the second gear. It is strictly forbidden to use the third gear or the above speed. The operation should proceed in a straight line. Operating efficiency is 2.5 to 4 mu per hour. When the operation begins, a person should be equipped to observe the operation and rule out any abnormal conditions. In seeding operation, the driver should always observe the working conditions of seed extractor, fertilizer extractor, furrow opener, soil covering device and transmission mechanism. When problems are found, stop the car in time to get rid of them. Unnecessary parking should be reduced at work to reduce the accumulation or thinning of seeds or fertilizers. When turning around, cut off the film first. Smooth lifting gear. When the machine is not lifted, it is strictly prohibited to reverse and turn. The gear should be lifted before moving and turning. The remaining seeds and fertilizer should be recycled after completion of the operation
III. Common failure and troubleshooting methods
If there is a problem in the job, you must stop immediately and deal with it. It is strictly forbidden to check, adjust and repair under the planter after it is hoisted.
1 . dew seed
When seed dewing occurs, the reason is that the device is too shallow. The removal method is to adjust the depth of the sewerage cutter. Another reason is the lack of covering. Adjust the Angle of the covering disc.
2 . leakage sowing
Check seeding situation, if found there is leakage. Check the transmission chain of the seeder first. If yes, reattach the transmission chain. There is no chain, leakage should be the cause of planting speed too fast. In this case, the seeding speed can be changed to lower gear 1 or 2.
3. The mulching soil is not strict
When the mulch leakage is found to be loose, inspect the mulch opener. If the opener is too shallow, increase the depth of the opener. If the overburden is not in place, adjust the working position of the overburden. If there is less overburden, increase the depth of overburden.
4. Rupture of mulch
When the film is torn lengthwise, check whether the film is installed too tight, which is usually because the film rotation is difficult. The lateral distance of the mulch bracket can be increased. The lateral tearing of the mulch was caused by excessive pressure on the membrane wheel. The tension of the spring should be reduced.
The correct maintenance and maintenance can ensure that the machine is always in good condition, give full play to the efficiency of the machine and extend its service life. Before and after each shift, carefully check whether the bolts are loose, and fix them in time, and check the working status of each component. If there is any abnormality, it must be adjusted immediately to work normally. Add lubricating oil and grease to all moving parts and friction parts. In case the planter doesn't work well the next time you use it. Normally, the planter should be lubricated and lubricated at the rotating parts for 4-6 hours.
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