Troubleshooting knowledge: rotary tiller
Troubleshooting knowledge: rotary tiller
At present, rotary tiller equipment has been widely used in China, and is gradually developing into an important category of agricultural machinery. At present, the driving tillage machinery products in China include rotary cultivator and double operating machine, driving disc plough, paddy field driving rake, vertical rotary rake, etc. At present, the three series of 145 products of 2.2-74.6kW walking tractor and auxiliary rototiller used in batch production and promotion are the updated products of the late 1980s. Since the 1990s, a batch of new products of rotary plowing machine and tools have been developed in China and put on the market step by step. At present, there are about 150,000 rotators for large and medium towing, and two million rotators for hand towing and small four-wheel. In the south, rotary cultivator accounts for 80% of the rice production mechanization. In the north, rotary cultivator is widely used for rice production, vegetable planting and dry land stubble removal.
I. features of rotary cultivator
It has the following operating characteristics:
1. The crushed soil has strong performance and the ground is flat after operation.
In dry land operations, the tractor's power output shaft drives the rotary cultivator to cut the soil. After the soil crumbles, cover is even and level, and no furrow will appear on the ground.
2.The vertical structure size and soil entry stroke are relatively short, and the ground head is correspondingly reduced, so the productivity is relatively high.
3. Can give full play to the power of the tractor.
The tractor's drive wheel may slip during arable work, reducing traction. And rotary cultivator blade shaft turns, blade cutting direction, in contrast to the direction of tractor, thus the soil cutting force of blade, is consistent with the direction of the tractor, so the tractor and rotary cultivator form a complete set of assignments, due to the rotation of the rotary cultivator, itself is the driving force will produce a driving machine, it can give full play to the power of the tractor.
4. Can finish the work of tillage and rake at one time, reduce the number of operations, and save energy consumption and time. In the busy season of summer harvest and planting, can finish the production task in time and not miss the agricultural time.
II. Proper use of rotary cultivator
1. Proper selection of rotary tiller shaft speed and tractor speed. In order to ensure that the rotary tiller can break the soil in the operation according to the agricultural requirements, the forward speed of dry tillage should be 2-3 km/h, while that of water tillage or rake should be 3-5 km/h. As for the rotation speed of rotary cultivator's cutter shaft, low-speed gear should be used for the soil with large dry tillage or tillage resistance, with the rotating speed of about 200 RPM, and high-speed gear should be used for the soil with small resistance of water tillage, rake and tillage, with the rotating speed of about 270 RPM.
2. Operation of rotary cultivator. Because the hydraulic suspension of the tractor and the structure of power output shaft have two forms, the rotary tiller lift operation is also different. One is that the hydraulic suspension mechanism of the tractor and the power output shaft are separately driven (such as taishan -50, dongfeng 50, shanghai-50 and other tractors). Whether the power output shaft rotates or not, the rise and fall of the rotary tiller is not affected by the power output shaft. The hydraulic suspension mechanism and power output shaft of the other kind of tractor are interconnected (such as the yuan-27 tractor). This type of tractor can only be promoted when the power output shaft rotates. When this kind of tractor is working in the field, if the knife is trapped in the mud, the knife shaft will not move, and the tractor will be put out because of heavy load, and the rotary tiller will not rise. At this time, the universal joint on the power output shaft should be removed, so that the power output shaft idles the rotary rotator, so that the knife shaft can be off gear.
III. Adjustment and maintenance of rotary tiller
1. Adjustment of chain.Chain adjustment should pay attention to the loose side of the chain and the phenomenon of climbing chain, too tight will increase wear. When making adjustment, it should be noted that the force of the overhead tensioning slide rail should be within 5-10 kg. It is advisable to press loose side chain. If the chain cannot be pressed hard, it means that the chain is too tight.
2. Adjustment of bearing clearance.There are two ways to adjust it: one is to increase or decrease the gasket. For bearings with fixed inner ring position and adjustable outer ring, the axial clearance can be adjusted by increasing or decreasing the gasket at the bearing cover. In this method, the clearance of bearings can be adjusted mainly as follows: 1 meter rotary tiller first shaft, 1.25-1.75 meter lateral driving tiller first shaft and second shaft taper bearing, cylindrical gear shaft of intermediate driving rotary tiller and taper bearing at spline shaft of cutter shaft. Check the adjusted bearing clearance. If there is no measuring instrument and special tool, you can use your hand to rotate the shaft empirically. There should be no obvious axial direction, leap and rotate flexibly. The second is the adjusting nut. Bearings with fixed outer ring and adjustable inner ring can be adjusted by this method. This method is mainly used for adjusting the second shaft of the intermediate gear box of the 1-meter rotary tiller, the cone bearing on the third shaft of the 1.25-1.75 meter lateral gear box of the rotary tiller, and the bevel gear shaft (the first shaft) of the intermediate gear box of the rotary tiller. Adjusting method for (1 meter rotary cultivator, for example) : to tighten the first big bevel gear end round nut, lock the thrust washers, and then screw down the other end round nut, with the hand to rotate the bearing, until it cannot by inertial force and rotation, and then use wood hammer percussion axis, make the bearing inner and outer circle abuts, check again bearing preload, used after adjusted the lock locking round nut.
3. Maintenance of main working parts
(1).The curved blade that has a blunt blade should be re-sharpened, the deformation curved blade should be corrected with a pad, and then hardened (the shank is not hardened). The hardened curved blade should be hrc50-55. If damaged, new pieces should be replaced.
(2) cutter holder.Most of the damage of the tool base is unsoldering, cracking or hexagonal hole deformation. Welding rod can be used to repair the partially damaged tool base, and the seriously damaged ones should be replaced. However, the deformation of the cutter shaft should be noted when welding the tool holder.
(3) Roller blade tube.The broken cutter shaft pipe can put a piece of well-welded round steel inside the pipe at the fracture. After welding, manual aging and shaping should be carried out, and then the bearing blocks at both ends should be checked. If the deviation is too large, the shaft head without spline end should be replaced.
IV. Off-gear fault of rotary cultivator
1. Common causes
(1) the rotary tiller USES a built-in clutch. Due to too long time of use, the meshing surface of the tooth insert is seriously worn, making the top of the meshing tooth become bald and rounded, losing the ability of self-locking after meshing, and it is easy to slip and get out of gear in the process of operation.
(2)the meshing sleeve locates the spring force is too small or broken, the meshing teeth are under stress or vibration of the unit, and the meshing sleeve produces axial sliding and detachment.
(3)the directional steel ball groove of meshing sleeve has large axial wear, and the steel ball in the working process generates axial swimming, so that the meshing teeth can be disengaged.
(4)excessive wear of the shift groove and the joystick ball head; excessive axial free clearance during the shift, even when the gear is on, the meshing width of the meshing teeth is small, and it is easy to get off the gear when the load changes or the unit jolts.
2. Troubleshooting method for rotary cultivator out of gear
(1)when the clutch meshing teeth are worn bare, they should be repaired or replaced in time. When repairing, the mesh teeth can be welded by carbon and copper welding electrode, and then repaired by standard tooth indentation and heat treatment.
(2) replace the spring with a standard spring that has too little or breaks, so as to ensure adequate positioning stability and reliability of the meshing sleeve.
(3) if the groove of meshing sleeve positioning steel ball is excessively worn, it shall be repaired and processed or replaced with new pieces.
(4)the removal groove and joystick ball head can be welded and repaired when wear is excessive, and heat treatment can be conducted after manual dressing. Replace new pieces that cannot be repaired.
V. proper maintenance of rotary cultivator
"Prevention is more important than cure, breeding is more important than repair" is the principle of rotary tiller use and maintenance. Rototiller maintenance is divided into shift maintenance and quarterly maintenance. Generally, the shift maintenance should be carried out after each shift operation. The maintenance contents include:
1.Check the tightening bolt;
2.Check whether there is any defect of the consumable parts such as bolt and opening pin, and replace them if necessary;
3.Check the transmission box, 10 bytes and bearing for lack of oil, and replenish immediately if necessary.
Quarterly maintenance shall be carried out after the quarterly completion of each operation,including:
1.Thoroughly remove dust and oil from the machine and tools; 2. Completely replace lubricating oil and grease; 3. Check the blade for excessive wear and replace it if necessary; 4. Check whether the machine cover and drag plate are deformed, and restore them to their original shape or replace them; 5. Fully check the appearance of the machine and tools, reapply paint, oil and rust on the scissor and spline shaft; 6. When not in use for a long time, rotary cultivator for wheeled tractor shall be placed on the horizontal ground and shall not be hung on the tractor.
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